## What was the Labor Theory of Value?

The Labor Theory of Value was one of the early attempts to explain how market prices form. It followed the idea that the main driver for goods’ value is the labor necessary to produce them. Under the theory, the labor hours it takes workers to produce a commodity is the Read more…

## The Value-Added Concept in Economics

The term value-added represents the enhanced value a company adds to its products and services. You probably notice that products sell for more than it costs to produce them, and services charge more than it costs to render them. This is what value-added represents. The essential purpose of any business Read more…

## Value Chain Analysis Break-down

The primary purpose of any business is to produce goods or provide services in a way that they have a higher value for the customers than the original cost for the firm. Companies engage in numerous activities while converting inputs to outputs. Porter’s Value Chain helps us create a clear Read more…

## Time Value of Money Explained

Introduction To understand the Time Value of Money, imagine you were offered 100 euros now or 100 euros in three years, what would you prefer? If you are like me, you’d probably prefer the money now. But why is that, when a 100 euros has the same value now and Read more…

## Sensitivity Analysis in Financial Modeling

Introduction to Sensitivity Analysis We apply Sensitivity Analysis to a financial model to determine how different values of an independent variable affect a specific dependent variable under a given set of assumptions. We also refer to it as ‘what-if’ or simulation analysis. Performing such analysis helps us predict better the Read more…

## Economic Value Added (EVA) Case Study: Nestlé S.A.

If you haven’t read the article on the Economic Value Added (EVA) metric, please, take a look here, before you read on. Introduction In today’s post, we are doing a short case study, trying to calculate the Economic Value Added (EVA) for Nestlé for FY 2018, using actual data available Read more…

## Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

Introduction The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) shows us the relationship between systematic risk for an investment and the expected return on it. Analysts and financial professionals use the model widely for pricing risky investments and generating expected returns for assets, considering the risk and cost of capital. The CAPM Read more…

## Terminal Value of the Business

What is Terminal Value? The Terminal Value (TV), or as it is also known, continuing value or horizon value, is the value of an investment or a business at the end of a specific period. A firm or project potentially has an infinite life, meaning its value is the Net Read more…

## Discounted Cash Flow Valuation Method

Today we are looking at how the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method is used to evaluate investment opportunities or project alternatives in big companies, like launching a new product, a new assembly line, etc. We can use the DCF method whenever we consider paying now to get more money (or Read more…