## Using the Net Present Value (NPV) in Financial Analysis

The Net Present Value (NPV) is a profitability measure we use to figure out the present value of all expected future cash flows a project or investment will generate, including the initial capital we invest. It shows us the difference between the current value of cash inflows and outflows over Read more…

## Quick Ratio in Financial Analysis and Modeling

Introduction We perform a liquidity ratio analysis to evaluate the ability of the company to settle its obligations on time. The most common use case is when lenders and creditors want to gain a better understanding of the financial health of a borrower or customer. Analysts use the gained insights Read more…

## Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) in Financial Modeling

Introduction Investors are continually evaluating different investments, trying to identify the ones that will maximize their returns and wealth. Analysts consider the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) as one of the most accurate ways to calculate the return for any investment with a value that changes over time. CAGR represents Read more…

## Working Capital Analysis

Introduction Most significant new projects for a business require investments in Working Capital, and this harms a company’s cash flow. Proper cash management is essential if we want the company to continue to operate in the future. A business can be profitable, but if it can’t keep cash on hand, Read more…

## CAPEX, Depreciation and Amortization in Financial Modeling

If you are already familiar with the outlined concepts, maybe you would be more interested in taking a look at the Excel model, which you can download below the article. Introduction Long-term (non-current) assets of the company have a long useful life (more than one year). When acquiring capital assets, Read more…

## Dividend Discount Model in Financial Analysis

Introduction to the Dividend Discount Model The Dividend Discount Model (DDM) is used to estimate the price of a company’s stocks. The model is based on the theory that the present value of the stock is equal to the present value of all future dividend payments when discounted back to Read more…

## Perpetuity Concept in Financial Analysis

Introduction The Perpetuity concept refers to the present value (PV) of equal periodic cash flows that investors will receive over an indefinite future period. We need to calculate the present value of perpetual cash flows for a variety of reasons, some being: Companies have cash flow projections for a reasonable Read more…

## Time Value of Money Explained

Introduction To understand the Time Value of Money, imagine you were offered 100 euros now or 100 euros in three years, what would you prefer? If you are like me, you’d probably prefer the money now. But why is that, when a 100 euros has the same value now and Read more…

## Sensitivity Analysis in Financial Modeling

Introduction to Sensitivity Analysis We apply Sensitivity Analysis to a financial model to determine how different values of an independent variable affect a specific dependent variable under a given set of assumptions. We also refer to it as ‘what-if’ or simulation analysis. Performing such analysis helps us predict better the Read more…