## Opportunity Cost in Financial Modeling and Analysis

Introduction Opportunity cost represents the benefits the business misses out on when picking between alternatives. When we have two desirable options, the benefit from the one not chosen is our opportunity cost. These costs are usually the result of bottlenecks in business processes. Therefore, finance professionals use Opportunity Cost analysis Read more…

## Quick Ratio in Financial Analysis and Modeling

Introduction We perform a liquidity ratio analysis to evaluate the ability of the company to settle its obligations on time. The most common use case is when lenders and creditors want to gain a better understanding of the financial health of a borrower or customer. Analysts use the gained insights Read more…

## Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) in Financial Modeling

Introduction Investors are continually evaluating different investments, trying to identify the ones that will maximize their returns and wealth. Analysts consider the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) as one of the most accurate ways to calculate the return for any investment with a value that changes over time. CAGR represents Read more…

## Working Capital Analysis

Introduction Most significant new projects for a business require investments in Working Capital, and this harms a company’s cash flow. Proper cash management is essential if we want the company to continue to operate in the future. A business can be profitable, but if it can’t keep cash on hand, Read more…

## Perpetuity Concept in Financial Analysis

Introduction The Perpetuity concept refers to the present value (PV) of equal periodic cash flows that investors will receive over an indefinite future period. We need to calculate the present value of perpetual cash flows for a variety of reasons, some being: Companies have cash flow projections for a reasonable Read more…

## Time Value of Money Explained

Introduction To understand the Time Value of Money, imagine you were offered 100 euros now or 100 euros in three years, what would you prefer? If you are like me, you’d probably prefer the money now. But why is that, when a 100 euros has the same value now and Read more…

## Performing Contribution Margin Analysis

Introduction The Contribution Margin is a significant financial metric that is sometimes neglected by managers. While profit margin is one we usually hold very important, it gives information only on the amount with which revenues exceed costs. On the other hand, Contribution Margin provides us with a way to see Read more…

## Internal Rate of Return (IRR) in Financial Analysis

Introduction to Internal Rate of Return Companies undertake various projects with the end goal to either increase earnings or cut down costs. These projects often require that the entities make significant investments. In capital budgeting, the management of the business wants to have an estimation of the returns on such Read more…

## Sales Trend Analysis and Forecasting in Excel

Introduction to Sales Trend Analysis Sales Trend Analysis looks at historical revenue data to identify patterns, used extensively in budgeting and forecasting. It is a useful method to detect short-term changes in revenue growth and performance. Trends A Trend is an upwards or downwards shift in the development of a Read more…

## Decision Trees in Financial Analysis

Introduction to Decision Trees We use Decision Trees to clarify the expected value of capital investment opportunities. Decision Trees can also be helpful in business operations, where companies continuously struggle with big decisions on product development, operations management, human resources, and others. With Decision Tree analysis, we can better evaluate Read more…