## How to Calculate the Beta of a Company

Beta is a risk-reward measure from fundamental analysis to determine the volatility of an asset compared to the overall market. We consider the market to have a beta of one. Then all assets are ranked based on their deviation from the market. If an asset’s returns fluctuate more than the Read more…

## Black-Scholes Model: First Steps

Today we take a look at the most popular options pricing model. The Black Scholes Model, also known as the Black-Scholes-Merton method, is a mathematical model for pricing option contracts. It works by estimating the variation in financial instruments. The technique relies on the assumption that prices follow a lognormal Read more…

## Optimal Portfolios and the Efficient Frontier

There’s a widespread assumption in investing that more risk equals increased potential returns. The theory behind the Efficient Frontier and Optimal Portfolios states that there’s an optimal combination of risk and return. The theory relies on the assumption that investors prefer portfolios that generate the most substantial possible return with Read more…

## Understanding the Binomial Option Pricing Model

The Binomial Option Pricing Model is a risk-neutral method for valuing path-dependent options (e.g., American options). It is a popular tool for stock options evaluation, and investors use the model to evaluate the right to buy or sell at specific prices over time. Under this model, the current value of Read more…

## Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) Case Study: Amazon (AMZN)

With a reach in e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming, and artificial intelligence, Amazon is now one of the largest corporations in the world. Analysts often refer to it as one of the most influential economic forces in the world. Alongside Google, Microsoft, and Apple, Amazon is considered one of the Read more…

## Monte Carlo Simulation in Financial Modeling

Whenever we are constructing a financial model, we rely heavily on assumptions. Some, if not all, of those assumptions, have the associated uncertainty and inherent risk. Not being able to predict the future makes it harder to solve and model the probability of different outcomes from our financial models. In Read more…

## Understanding The Value of a Budget

Introduction Running a business poses the threat of getting lost into the day-to-day issues the company faces. And this can mean we start to miss the bigger picture. Investing time and resources in creating a budget and a business plan is essential to ensure we form a proper long-term strategy Read more…

## Value Chain Analysis Break-down

The primary purpose of any business is to produce goods or provide services in a way that they have a higher value for the customers than the original cost for the firm. Companies engage in numerous activities while converting inputs to outputs. Porter’s Value Chain helps us create a clear Read more…

## Quick Ratio in Financial Analysis and Modeling

Introduction We perform a liquidity ratio analysis to evaluate the ability of the company to settle its obligations on time. The most common use case is when lenders and creditors want to gain a better understanding of the financial health of a borrower or customer. Analysts use the gained insights Read more…

## Dividend Discount Model in Financial Analysis

Introduction to the Dividend Discount Model The Dividend Discount Model (DDM) is used to estimate the price of a company’s stocks. The model is based on the theory that the present value of the stock is equal to the present value of all future dividend payments when discounted back to Read more…