Vacation Days and Unused Paid Leave Accrual

When a company hires employees, they provide it with services. In turn, the company, as their employer, reimburses their time spent with a remuneration package. This usually consists mostly of a salary but can include various other benefits, some of which may be mandated by law or local legislation. One of those benefits is the […]

Accounts Receivable Aging Report in Excel

The Receivables Aging (or Ageing, if you prefer British English) report is a tool that lists all unpaid customer balances by pre-defined date ranges (buckets). It shows the relationship between open invoices and their due dates. It is the primary tool to determine overdue balances for collection. It’s useful for the company’s management, as it […]

Optimal Portfolios and the Efficient Frontier

There’s a widespread assumption in investing that more risk equals increased potential returns. The theory behind the Efficient Frontier and Optimal Portfolios states that there’s an optimal combination of risk and return. The theory relies on the assumption that investors prefer portfolios that generate the most substantial possible return with the least amount of involved […]

Using the Net Present Value (NPV) in Financial Analysis

The Net Present Value (NPV) is a profitability measure we use to figure out the present value of all expected future cash flows a project or investment will generate, including the initial capital we invest. It shows us the difference between the current value of cash inflows and outflows over a period. Net Present Value […]

Quick Ratio in Financial Analysis and Modeling

Introduction We perform a liquidity ratio analysis to evaluate the ability of the company to settle its obligations on time. The most common use case is when lenders and creditors want to gain a better understanding of the financial health of a borrower or customer. Analysts use the gained insights to set credit terms and […]

CAPEX, Depreciation and Amortization in Financial Modeling

If you are already familiar with the outlined concepts, maybe you would be more interested in taking a look at the Excel model, which you can download below the article. Introduction Long-term (non-current) assets of the company have a long useful life (more than one year). When acquiring capital assets, we aim to use them […]