9 Best Practices to Simplify Your Accounting Month-End Close Process

An important financial event for any organization is the month-end close process. Whether the business entity you work with is a corporation, small business, or non-profit, closing the books is universally important. This activity indicates an organization’s revenue, debt, accounts payable, and profits. For newly minted accountants, the first-ever accounting month-end close process is a […]

Understanding the Gordon Growth Model for Stock Valuation

Understanding the Gordon Growth Model for Stock Valuation The Gordon Growth Model (GGM) is a method for the valuation of stocks. Investors use it to determine the relationship between value and return. The model uses the Net Present Value (NPV) of future dividends to calculate assets’ intrinsic value. It’s the most popular variation of the […]

Vacation Days and Unused Paid Leave Accrual

When a company hires employees, they provide it with services. In turn, the company, as their employer, reimburses their time spent with a remuneration package. This usually consists mostly of a salary but can include various other benefits, some of which may be mandated by law or local legislation. One of those benefits is the […]

Accounts Receivable Aging Report in Excel

The Receivables Aging (or Ageing, if you prefer British English) report is a tool that lists all unpaid customer balances by pre-defined date ranges (buckets). It shows the relationship between open invoices and their due dates. It is the primary tool to determine overdue balances for collection. It’s useful for the company’s management, as it […]

Hypothesis Testing for Complete Beginners

Gathering data in itself is meaningless unless we can analyze it and draw powerful insights. What makes data interesting is the ability to evaluate and interpret it. Hypothesis testing refers to a term in statistics where we, as the analysts, evaluate an assumption related to a data set parameter. Based on the purpose of the […]

Understand the Market Value of Equity

The Market Value of Equity of the company, also known as Market Capitalization, is the total monetary value of the firm’s equity. We calculate it as the current stock price multiplied by the number of outstanding shares. Therefore the MVE continually changes, as these two values are quite volatile. Analysts mostly use the Market Value […]

Introduction to Seasonality in Financial Analysis and Modeling

Seasonality is a characteristic of time-series where the data has predictable and somewhat regular fluctuations that repeat year over year. It is safe to assume that any pattern of data changes over one-year periods represents seasonality. It is usually driven by weather or commercial seasons. We have to differentiate the term from cyclical data, as […]

Consolidation of Financial Statements: A Brief Introduction

In finance terms, consolidation refers to the incorporation of the financial statements of all subsidiaries into the financial statements of the parent company. Consolidation of financial statements requires the parent company to integrate and combine all its financials to create a standard-form income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement, as part of a set […]

Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) Case Study: Amazon (AMZN)

With a reach in e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming, and artificial intelligence, Amazon is now one of the largest corporations in the world. Analysts often refer to it as one of the most influential economic forces in the world. Alongside Google, Microsoft, and Apple, Amazon is considered one of the Big Four tech companies. In […]

Value Chain Analysis Break-down

The primary purpose of any business is to produce goods or provide services in a way that they have a higher value for the customers than the original cost for the firm. Companies engage in numerous activities while converting inputs to outputs. Porter’s Value Chain helps us create a clear overview of the internal organization, […]